Vitual Exhibition

A reconstructed partisan uniform and symbolic elements.

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TIMELINE

THE WORLD

August 2

Following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg, Adolf Hitler took over as President of the Reich.

June 15

The Soviet Union occupied Lithuania: terror, Sovietisation, deportations, control of the press.

July

Soviet reoccupation of Lithuania started. Restoration of the Soviet rule in Lithuania: repression, armed resistance.

April 4

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), an international political and military alliance of defense, is established.

March 5th

Joseph Stalin dies.

LITHUANIA

March 9th

In Kaunas, order No. 19 was issued, announcing the updated description of the army uniform and the rules of wearing it.

Exposition 1
Artillery officer’s cap with black trims and the 1934 cockade.

May 15

In Kaunas, order No. 45 was issued, announcing the updated description of the army uniform and the rules of wearing it.

Exposition 4
Lithuanian officer’s last interwar parade uniform of “French” cut.

August

Exposition 11
Giedrius Paulauskas’ grandfather Jonas Lukošiūnas (1919 10 07– 2001 08 15) from Galiniai village, Užpaliai volost, Utena district, became a partisan.

February

The LLKS Council Declaration was adopted on February 16.

Expositions 5 & 7
A new partisan cap insignia, the cockade, was approved, as well as the new partisan’s badge.

May 30

A gas grenade is thrown into the bunker where the LLKS Council Presidium Chairman Jonas Žemaitis-Vytautas was hiding, resulting in his arest. This dates the end of the LLKS armed resistance.

DECLARATION OF THE LITHUANIAN FREEDOM FIGHTING MOVEMENT

On February 16, 1949, at the headquarters of the Resurrection district leadership in Minaičiai, the declaration was adopted and signed by eight members of the Council:

Chairman of the Presidium of the LLKS Council:

Vytautas-Jonas Žemaitis

Members of the LLKS Council (signed in alphabetical order according to the first letter of aliases):

Faustas-Aleksandras Grybinas
Kardas-Vytautas Gužas
Merainis-Juozas Šibaila
Naktis-Bronius Liesis
Užpalis-Leonardas Vilhelmas Grigonis
Vanagas-Adolfas Ramanauskas
Žadgaila-Petras Bartkus

THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS OF 12 AUGUST 1949

International law defines these four characteristics of a partisan (a combatant – a legal participant in hostilities):

  1. That of being commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
  2. That of having a fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance;
  3. That of carrying arms openly;
  4. That of conducting their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war.

Exhibits

1934 model cap
The cap is a particularly important part of partisan clothing. The designer reconstructed the interwar Lithuanian artillery officer’s 1934 model cap with black trim. This model and the 1934 cockades were the most popular among partisans.

Partisan gloves
Symbolism was one of the most important connecting elements of the partisan uniform. Therefore, even wool gloves knitted for partisans were far from being plain. They often featured national symbols: the Lithuanian tricolor, Vytis cross, and Vytis.

Interwar officer’s galliffet trousers
These trousers are of “galliffet” style – shorter, narrower at the calves, making it more comfortable to fit them into long boots. The trousers were sewn based on the uniform trousers found in a flea market.

The last interwar Lithuanian officer’s jacket, 1940
The uniform can be considered a symbol of responsibility towards the nation. For partisans, the most important part of the uniform was the jacket. Reconstruction of the 1940 interwar period Lithuanian Armed Forces parade uniform jacket..

1949 Cockade
The post-war partisan cockade appeared after 1949 Presidium of the LLKS Council and was based on Bronius Liesis-Naktis (the Night) design. The partisans produced the cockades themselves and distributed them throughout all the districts.

Officer’s greatcoat
The greatcoat was reconstructed by using an old Dutch military greatcoat, as it proved a real challenge to find authentic fabrics of that period. The partisans used to produce their clothing in a similar manner – by disassembling old garments.

Vytis cross with red contour in diamond-shaped green background, 1949
During the LLKS meeting on 1949 August 1, the order on using unified symbols and insignia for all Lithuanian partisans was signed. The left sleeve was to be adorned with a black Vytis cross with red contour in diamond- shaped green background.

Jacket of the Žemaičiai district partisans
A unique jacket of the 1949- 1950 partisan period. This partisan jacket had to be reconstructed based on photographs only. It was worn by the Žemaičiai district partisans.

Partisan blouse
Partisan blouses were a very common garment. Grey linen fabric of herringbone weave corresponded to the period. Most often these were modified civilian blouses. Over time, the partisan blouse became a part of the uniform.

Winter camouflage cloak
The white camouflage cloak was reconstructed based on the cloak that belonged to the designer’s grandfather Jonas Lukošiūnas. This part of the outfit was particularly important as the partisans had to disguise themselves all the time.

Giedrius Paulauskas’ grandfather Jonas Lukošiūnas
In August of 1944, at the age of 25, he became a partisan. Lukošiūnas remained a partisan until July of 1946.

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